Token Program

A Token program on the Solana blockchain.

This program defines a common implementation for Fungible and Non Fungible tokens.

Background

Solana's programming model and the definitions of the Solana terms used in this document are available at:

Source

The Token Program's source is available on github

Interface

The Token Program is written in Rust and available on crates.io and docs.rs.

Auto-generated C bindings are also available here

JavaScript bindings are available that support loading the Token Program on to a chain and issue instructions.

See the SPL Associated Token Account program for convention around wallet address to token account mapping and funding.

Command-line Utility

The spl-token command-line utility can be used to experiment with SPL tokens. Once you have Rust installed, run:

$ cargo install spl-token-cli

Run spl-token --help for a full description of available commands.

Configuration

The spl-token configuration is shared with the solana command-line tool.

Current Configuration

solana config get
Config File: ${HOME}/.config/solana/cli/config.yml
RPC URL: https://api.mainnet-beta.solana.com
WebSocket URL: wss://api.mainnet-beta.solana.com/ (computed)
Keypair Path: ${HOME}/.config/solana/id.json

Cluster RPC URL

See Solana clusters for cluster-specific RPC URLs

solana config set --url https://devnet.solana.com

Default Keypair

See Keypair conventions for information on how to setup a keypair if you don't already have one.

Keypair File

solana config set --keypair ${HOME}/new-keypair.json

Hardware Wallet URL (See URL spec)

solana config set --keypair usb://ledger/

Example: Creating your own fungible token

$ spl-token create-token
Creating token AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM
Signature: 47hsLFxWRCg8azaZZPSnQR8DNTRsGyPNfUK7jqyzgt7wf9eag3nSnewqoZrVZHKm8zt3B6gzxhr91gdQ5qYrsRG4

The unique identifier of the token is AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM.

Tokens when initially created by spl-token have no supply:

spl-token supply AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM
0

Let's mint some. First create an account to hold a balance of the new AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM token:

$ spl-token create-account AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM
Creating account 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi
Signature: 42Sa5eK9dMEQyvD9GMHuKxXf55WLZ7tfjabUKDhNoZRAxj9MsnN7omriWMEHXLea3aYpjZ862qocRLVikvkHkyfy

7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi is now an empty account:

$ spl-token balance 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi
0

Mint 100 tokens into the account:

$ spl-token mint AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM 100
Minting 100 tokens
Token: AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM
Recipient: 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi
Signature: 41mARH42fPkbYn1mvQ6hYLjmJtjW98NXwd6pHqEYg9p8RnuoUsMxVd16RkStDHEzcS2sfpSEpFscrJQn3HkHzLaa

The token supply and account balance now reflect the result of minting:

$ spl-token supply AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM
100
$ spl-token balance 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi
100

Example: View all Tokens that you own

$ spl-token accounts
Account Token Balance
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2ryb53FGVLVYFXmAemN7avawevuNFXwTVetMpH9ag3XZ 7e2X5oeAAJyUTi4PfSGXFLGhyPw2H8oELm1mx87ZCgwF 84
7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM 100
CqAxDdBRnawzx9q4PYM3wrybLHBhDZ4P6BTV13WsRJYJ AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM 0
JAopo117aj6HMwCRjXSyNpZfGDJRi7ukqHgs2inXD8Rc AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM 0

Example: Wrapping SOL in a Token

$ spl-token wrap 1
Wrapping 1 SOL into GJTxcnA5Sydy8YRhqvHxbQ5QNsPyRKvzguodQEaShJje
Signature: 4f4s5QVMKisLS6ihZcXXPbiBAzjnvkBcp2A7KKER7k9DwJ4qjbVsQBKv2rAyBumXC1gLn8EJQhwWkybE4yJGnw2Y

To unwrap the Token back to SOL:

$ spl-token unwrap GJTxcnA5Sydy8YRhqvHxbQ5QNsPyRKvzguodQEaShJje
Unwrapping GJTxcnA5Sydy8YRhqvHxbQ5QNsPyRKvzguodQEaShJje
Amount: 1 SOL
Recipient: vines1vzrYbzLMRdu58ou5XTby4qAqVRLmqo36NKPTg
Signature: f7opZ86ZHKGvkJBQsJ8Pk81v8F3v1VUfyd4kFs4CABmfTnSZK5BffETznUU3tEWvzibgKJASCf7TUpDmwGi8Rmh

Example: Transferring tokens to another user

First the receiver uses spl-token create-account to create their associated token account for the Token type. Then the receiver obtains their wallet address by running solana address and provides it to the sender.

The sender then runs:

$ spl-token transfer 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi 50 vines1vzrYbzLMRdu58ou5XTby4qAqVRLmqo36NKPTg
Transfer 50 tokens
Sender: 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi
Recipient: vines1vzrYbzLMRdu58ou5XTby4qAqVRLmqo36NKPTg
Recipient associated token account: F59618aQB8r6asXeMcB9jWuY6NEx1VduT9yFo1GTi1ks
Signature: 5a3qbvoJQnTAxGPHCugibZTbSu7xuTgkxvF4EJupRjRXGgZZrnWFmKzfEzcqKF2ogCaF4QKVbAtuFx7xGwrDUcGd

Example: Transferring tokens to another user, with sender-funding

If the receiver does not yet have an associated token account, the sender may choose to fund the receiver's account.

The receiver obtains their wallet address by running solana address and provides it to the sender.

The sender then runs to fund the receiver's associated token account, at the sender's expense, and then transfers 50 tokens into it:

$ spl-token transfer --fund-recipient 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi 50 vines1vzrYbzLMRdu58ou5XTby4qAqVRLmqo36NKPTg
Transfer 50 tokens
Sender: 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi
Recipient: vines1vzrYbzLMRdu58ou5XTby4qAqVRLmqo36NKPTg
Recipient associated token account: F59618aQB8r6asXeMcB9jWuY6NEx1VduT9yFo1GTi1ks
Funding recipient: F59618aQB8r6asXeMcB9jWuY6NEx1VduT9yFo1GTi1ks (0.00203928 SOL)
Signature: 5a3qbvoJQnTAxGPHCugibZTbSu7xuTgkxvF4EJupRjRXGgZZrnWFmKzfEzcqKF2ogCaF4QKVbAtuFx7xGwrDUcGd

Example: Transferring tokens to an explicit recipient token account

Tokens may be transferred to a specific recipient token account. The recipient token account must already exist and be of the same Token type.

$ spl-token create-account AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM
Creating account CqAxDdBRnawzx9q4PYM3wrybLHBhDZ4P6BTV13WsRJYJ
Signature: 4yPWj22mbyLu5mhfZ5WATNfYzTt5EQ7LGzryxM7Ufu7QCVjTE7czZdEBqdKR7vjKsfAqsBdjU58NJvXrTqCXvfWW
$ spl-token accounts AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM
Account Token Balance
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM 100
CqAxDdBRnawzx9q4PYM3wrybLHBhDZ4P6BTV13WsRJYJ AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM 0
$ spl-token transfer 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi 50 CqAxDdBRnawzx9q4PYM3wrybLHBhDZ4P6BTV13WsRJYJ
Transfer 50 tokens
Sender: 7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi
Recipient: CqAxDdBRnawzx9q4PYM3wrybLHBhDZ4P6BTV13WsRJYJ
Signature: 5a3qbvoJQnTAxGPHCugibZTbSu7xuTgkxvF4EJupRjRXGgZZrnWFmKzfEzcqKF2ogCaF4QKVbAtuFx7xGwrDUcGd
$ spl-token accounts AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM
Account Token Balance
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7UX2i7SucgLMQcfZ75s3VXmZZY4YRUyJN9X1RgfMoDUi AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM 50
CqAxDdBRnawzx9q4PYM3wrybLHBhDZ4P6BTV13WsRJYJ AQoKYV7tYpTrFZN6P5oUufbQKAUr9mNYGe1TTJC9wajM 50

Example: Create a non-fungible token

Create the token type,

$ spl-token create-token
Creating token 559u4Tdr9umKwft3yHMsnAxohhzkFnUBPAFtibwuZD9z
Signature: 4kz82JUey1B9ki1McPW7NYv1NqPKCod6WNptSkYqtuiEsQb9exHaktSAHJJsm4YxuGNW4NugPJMFX9ee6WA2dXts

then create an account to hold tokens of this new type:

$ spl-token create-account 559u4Tdr9umKwft3yHMsnAxohhzkFnUBPAFtibwuZD9z
Creating account 7KqpRwzkkeweW5jQoETyLzhvs9rcCj9dVQ1MnzudirsM
Signature: sjChze6ecaRtvuQVZuwURyg6teYeiH8ZwT6UTuFNKjrdayQQ3KNdPB7d2DtUZ6McafBfEefejHkJ6MWQEfVHLtC

Now mint only one token into the account,

$ spl-token mint 559u4Tdr9umKwft3yHMsnAxohhzkFnUBPAFtibwuZD9z 1 7KqpRwzkkeweW5jQoETyLzhvs9rcCj9dVQ1MnzudirsM
Minting 1 tokens
Token: 559u4Tdr9umKwft3yHMsnAxohhzkFnUBPAFtibwuZD9z
Recipient: 7KqpRwzkkeweW5jQoETyLzhvs9rcCj9dVQ1MnzudirsM
Signature: 2Kzg6ZArQRCRvcoKSiievYy3sfPqGV91Whnz6SeimhJQXKBTYQf3E54tWg3zPpYLbcDexxyTxnj4QF69ucswfdY

and disable future minting:

$ spl-token authorize 559u4Tdr9umKwft3yHMsnAxohhzkFnUBPAFtibwuZD9z mint --disable
Updating 559u4Tdr9umKwft3yHMsnAxohhzkFnUBPAFtibwuZD9z
Current mint authority: vines1vzrYbzLMRdu58ou5XTby4qAqVRLmqo36NKPTg
New mint authority: disabled
Signature: 5QpykLzZsceoKcVRRFow9QCdae4Dp2zQAcjebyEWoezPFg2Np73gHKWQicHG1mqRdXu3yiZbrft3Q8JmqNRNqhwU

Now the 7KqpRwzkkeweW5jQoETyLzhvs9rcCj9dVQ1MnzudirsM account holds the one and only 559u4Tdr9umKwft3yHMsnAxohhzkFnUBPAFtibwuZD9z token:

$ spl-token account-info 7KqpRwzkkeweW5jQoETyLzhvs9rcCj9dVQ1MnzudirsM
Address: 7KqpRwzkkeweW5jQoETyLzhvs9rcCj9dVQ1MnzudirsM
Balance: 1
Mint: 559u4Tdr9umKwft3yHMsnAxohhzkFnUBPAFtibwuZD9z
Owner: vines1vzrYbzLMRdu58ou5XTby4qAqVRLmqo36NKPTg
State: Initialized
Delegation: (not set)
Close authority: (not set)
$ spl-token supply 559u4Tdr9umKwft3yHMsnAxohhzkFnUBPAFtibwuZD9z
1

Mutlisig usage

The main difference in spl-token command line usage when referencing multisig accounts is in specifying the --owner argument. Typically the signer specified by this argument directly provides a signature granting its authority, but in the multisig case it just points to the address of the multisig account. Signatures are then provided by the multisig signer-set members specified by the --multisig-signer argument.

Multisig accounts can be used for any authority on an SPL Token mint or token account.

  • Mint account mint authority: spl-token mint ..., spl-token authorize ... mint ...
  • Mint account freeze authority: spl-token freeze ..., spl-token thaw ..., spl-token authorize ... freeze ...
  • Token account owner authority: spl-token transfer ..., spl-token approve ..., spl-token revoke ..., spl-token burn ..., spl-token wrap ..., spl-token unwrap ..., spl-token authorize ... owner ...
  • Token account close authority: spl-token close ..., spl-token authorize ... close ...

Example: Mint with multisig authority

First create keypairs to act as the multisig signer-set. In reality, these can be any supported signer, like: a Ledger hardware wallet, a keypair file, or a paper wallet. For convenience, keypair files will be used in this example.

$ for i in $(seq 3); do solana-keygen new --no-passphrase -so "signer-${i}.json"; done
Wrote new keypair to signer-1.json
Wrote new keypair to signer-2.json
Wrote new keypair to signer-3.json

In order to create the multisig account, the public keys of the signer-set must be collected.

$ for i in $(seq 3); do SIGNER="signer-${i}.json"; echo "$SIGNER: $(solana-keygen pubkey "$SIGNER")"; done
signer-1.json: BzWpkuRrwXHq4SSSFHa8FJf6DRQy4TaeoXnkA89vTgHZ
signer-2.json: DhkUfKgfZ8CF6PAGKwdABRL1VqkeNrTSRx8LZfpPFVNY
signer-3.json: D7ssXHrZJjfpZXsmDf8RwfPxe1BMMMmP1CtmX3WojPmG

Now the multisig account can be created with the spl-token create-multisig subcommand. Its first positional argument is the minimum number of signers (M) that must sign a transaction affecting a token/mint account that is controlled by this multisig account. The remaining positional arguments are the public keys of all keypairs allowed (N) to sign for the multisig account. This example will use a "2 of 3" multisig account. That is, two of the three allowed keypairs must sign all transactions.

NOTE: SPL Token Multisig accounts are limited to a signer-set of eleven signers (1 <= N <= 11) and minimum signers must be no more than N (1 <= M <= N)

$ spl-token create-multisig 2 BzWpkuRrwXHq4SSSFHa8FJf6DRQy4TaeoXnkA89vTgHZ \
DhkUfKgfZ8CF6PAGKwdABRL1VqkeNrTSRx8LZfpPFVNY D7ssXHrZJjfpZXsmDf8RwfPxe1BMMMmP1CtmX3WojPmG
Creating 2/3 multisig 46ed77fd4WTN144q62BwjU2B3ogX3Xmmc8PT5Z3Xc2re
Signature: 2FN4KXnczAz33SAxwsuevqrD1BvikP6LUhLie5Lz4ETt594X8R7yvMZzZW2zjmFLPsLQNHsRuhQeumExHbnUGC9A

Next create the token mint and recieving accounts as previously described

$ spl-token create-token
Creating token 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o
Signature: 3n6zmw3hS5Hyo5duuhnNvwjAbjzC42uzCA3TTsrgr9htUonzDUXdK1d8b8J77XoeSherqWQM8mD8E1TMYCpksS2r
$ spl-token create-account 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o
Creating account EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC
Signature: 5mVes7wjE7avuFqzrmSCWneKBQyPAjasCLYZPNSkmqmk2YFosYWAP9hYSiZ7b7NKpV866x5gwyKbbppX3d8PcE9s

Then set the mint account's minting authority to the multisig account

$ spl-token authorize 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o mint 46ed77fd4WTN144q62BwjU2B3ogX3Xmmc8PT5Z3Xc2re
Updating 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o
Current mint authority: 5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE
New mint authority: 46ed77fd4WTN144q62BwjU2B3ogX3Xmmc8PT5Z3Xc2re
Signature: yy7dJiTx1t7jvLPCRX5RQWxNRNtFwvARSfbMJG94QKEiNS4uZcp3GhhjnMgZ1CaWMWe4jVEMy9zQBoUhzomMaxC

To demonstrate that the mint account is now under control of the multisig account, attempting to mint with one multisig signer fails

$ spl-token mint 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o 1 EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC \
--owner 46ed77fd4WTN144q62BwjU2B3ogX3Xmmc8PT5Z3Xc2re \
--multisig-signer signer-1.json
Minting 1 tokens
Token: 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o
Recipient: EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC
RPC response error -32002: Transaction simulation failed: Error processing Instruction 0: missing required signature for instruction

But repeating with a second multisig signer, succeeds

spl-token mint 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o 1 EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC \
--owner 46ed77fd4WTN144q62BwjU2B3ogX3Xmmc8PT5Z3Xc2re \
--multisig-signer signer-1.json \
--multisig-signer signer-2.json
Minting 1 tokens
Token: 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o
Recipient: EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC
Signature: 2ubqWqZb3ooDuc8FLaBkqZwzguhtMgQpgMAHhKsWcUzjy61qtJ7cZ1bfmYktKUfnbMYWTC1S8zdKgU6m4THsgspT

Example: Mint with multisig authority and offline signers

This example builds off of the online mint with multisig example. Be sure to familiarize yourself with that process, offline signing, and the durable nonce feature before continuing.

This example will use the same mint account, token account, multisig account, and multisig signer-set keypair filenames as the online example.

A nonce account at Fjyud2VXixk2vCs4DkBpfpsq48d81rbEzh6deKt7WvPj will be used

$ solana nonce-account Fjyud2VXixk2vCs4DkBpfpsq48d81rbEzh6deKt7WvPj
Balance: 0.01 SOL
Minimum Balance Required: 0.00144768 SOL
Nonce blockhash: 6DPt2TfFBG7sR4Hqu16fbMXPj8ddHKkbU4Y3EEEWrC2E
Fee: 5000 lamports per signature
Authority: 5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE

For the fee-payer and nonce-authority roles, a local hot wallet at 5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE will be used.

First a template command is built by specifying all signers by their public key. Upon running this command, all signers will be listed as "Absent Signers" in the output. This command will be run by each offline signer to generate the corresponding signature.

NOTE: The argument to the --blockhash parameter is the "Nonce blockhash:" field from the designated durable nonce account.

$ spl-token mint 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o 1 EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC \
--owner 46ed77fd4WTN144q62BwjU2B3ogX3Xmmc8PT5Z3Xc2re \
--multisig-signer BzWpkuRrwXHq4SSSFHa8FJf6DRQy4TaeoXnkA89vTgHZ \
--multisig-signer DhkUfKgfZ8CF6PAGKwdABRL1VqkeNrTSRx8LZfpPFVNY \
--blockhash 6DPt2TfFBG7sR4Hqu16fbMXPj8ddHKkbU4Y3EEEWrC2E \
--fee-payer 5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE \
--nonce Fjyud2VXixk2vCs4DkBpfpsq48d81rbEzh6deKt7WvPj \
--nonce-authority 5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE \
--sign-only \
--mint-decimals 9
Minting 1 tokens
Token: 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o
Recipient: EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC
Blockhash: 6DPt2TfFBG7sR4Hqu16fbMXPj8ddHKkbU4Y3EEEWrC2E
Absent Signers (Pubkey):
5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE
BzWpkuRrwXHq4SSSFHa8FJf6DRQy4TaeoXnkA89vTgHZ
DhkUfKgfZ8CF6PAGKwdABRL1VqkeNrTSRx8LZfpPFVNY

Next each offline signer executes the template command, replacing each instance of their public key with the corresponding keypair.

spl-token mint 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o 1 EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC \
--owner 46ed77fd4WTN144q62BwjU2B3ogX3Xmmc8PT5Z3Xc2re \
--multisig-signer signer-1.json \
--multisig-signer DhkUfKgfZ8CF6PAGKwdABRL1VqkeNrTSRx8LZfpPFVNY \
--blockhash 6DPt2TfFBG7sR4Hqu16fbMXPj8ddHKkbU4Y3EEEWrC2E \
--fee-payer 5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE \
--nonce Fjyud2VXixk2vCs4DkBpfpsq48d81rbEzh6deKt7WvPj \
--nonce-authority 5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE \
--sign-only \
--mint-decimals 9
Minting 1 tokens
Token: 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o
Recipient: EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC
Blockhash: 6DPt2TfFBG7sR4Hqu16fbMXPj8ddHKkbU4Y3EEEWrC2E
Signers (Pubkey=Signature):
BzWpkuRrwXHq4SSSFHa8FJf6DRQy4TaeoXnkA89vTgHZ=2QVah9XtvPAuhDB2QwE7gNaY962DhrGP6uy9zeN4sTWvY2xDUUzce6zkQeuT3xg44wsgtUw2H5Rf8pEArPSzJvHX
Absent Signers (Pubkey):
5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE
DhkUfKgfZ8CF6PAGKwdABRL1VqkeNrTSRx8LZfpPFVNY
$ spl-token mint 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o 1 EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC \
--owner 46ed77fd4WTN144q62BwjU2B3ogX3Xmmc8PT5Z3Xc2re \
--multisig-signer BzWpkuRrwXHq4SSSFHa8FJf6DRQy4TaeoXnkA89vTgHZ \
--multisig-signer signer-2.json \
--blockhash 6DPt2TfFBG7sR4Hqu16fbMXPj8ddHKkbU4Y3EEEWrC2E \
--fee-payer 5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE \
--nonce Fjyud2VXixk2vCs4DkBpfpsq48d81rbEzh6deKt7WvPj \
--nonce-authority 5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE \
--sign-only \
--mint-decimals 9
Minting 1 tokens
Token: 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o
Recipient: EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC
Blockhash: 6DPt2TfFBG7sR4Hqu16fbMXPj8ddHKkbU4Y3EEEWrC2E
Signers (Pubkey=Signature):
DhkUfKgfZ8CF6PAGKwdABRL1VqkeNrTSRx8LZfpPFVNY=2brZbTiCfyVYSCp6vZE3p7qCDeFf3z1JFmJHPBrz8SnWSDZPjbpjsW2kxFHkktTNkhES3y6UULqS4eaWztLW7FrU
Absent Signers (Pubkey):
5hbZyJ3KRuFvdy5QBxvE9KwK17hzkAUkQHZTxPbiWffE
BzWpkuRrwXHq4SSSFHa8FJf6DRQy4TaeoXnkA89vTgHZ

Finally, the offline signers communicate the Pubkey=Signature pair from the output of their command to the party who will broadcast the transaction to the cluster. The broadcasting party then runs the template command after modifying it as follows:

  1. Replaces any corresponding public keys with their keypair (--fee-payer ... and --nonce-authority ... in this example)
  2. Removes the --sign-only argument, and in the case of the mint subcommand, the --mint-decimals ... argument as it will be queried from the cluster
  3. Adds the offline signatures to the template command via the --signer argument
$ spl-token mint 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o 1 EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC \
--owner 46ed77fd4WTN144q62BwjU2B3ogX3Xmmc8PT5Z3Xc2re \
--multisig-signer BzWpkuRrwXHq4SSSFHa8FJf6DRQy4TaeoXnkA89vTgHZ \
--multisig-signer DhkUfKgfZ8CF6PAGKwdABRL1VqkeNrTSRx8LZfpPFVNY \
--blockhash 6DPt2TfFBG7sR4Hqu16fbMXPj8ddHKkbU4Y3EEEWrC2E \
--fee-payer hot-wallet.json \
--nonce Fjyud2VXixk2vCs4DkBpfpsq48d81rbEzh6deKt7WvPj \
--nonce-authority hot-wallet.json \
--signer BzWpkuRrwXHq4SSSFHa8FJf6DRQy4TaeoXnkA89vTgHZ=2QVah9XtvPAuhDB2QwE7gNaY962DhrGP6uy9zeN4sTWvY2xDUUzce6zkQeuT3xg44wsgtUw2H5Rf8pEArPSzJvHX \
--signer DhkUfKgfZ8CF6PAGKwdABRL1VqkeNrTSRx8LZfpPFVNY=2brZbTiCfyVYSCp6vZE3p7qCDeFf3z1JFmJHPBrz8SnWSDZPjbpjsW2kxFHkktTNkhES3y6UULqS4eaWztLW7FrU
Minting 1 tokens
Token: 4VNVRJetwapjwYU8jf4qPgaCeD76wyz8DuNj8yMCQ62o
Recipient: EX8zyi2ZQUuoYtXd4MKmyHYLTjqFdWeuoTHcsTdJcKHC
Signature: 2AhZXVPDBVBxTQLJohyH1wAhkkSuxRiYKomSSXtwhPL9AdF3wmhrrJGD7WgvZjBPLZUFqWrockzPp9S3fvzbgicy

JSON RPC methods

There is a rich set of JSON RPC methods available for use with SPL Token:

  • getTokenAccountBalance
  • getTokenAccountsByDelegate
  • getTokenAccountsByOwner
  • getTokenLargestAccounts
  • getTokenSupply

See https://docs.solana.com/apps/jsonrpc-api for more details.

Additionally the versatile getProgramAcccounts JSON RPC method can be employed in various ways to fetch SPL Token accounts of interest.

Finding all token accounts for a specific mint

To find all token accounts for the TESTpKgj42ya3st2SQTKiANjTBmncQSCqLAZGcSPLGM mint:

curl http://api.mainnet-beta.solana.com -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '
{
"jsonrpc": "2.0",
"id": 1,
"method": "getProgramAccounts",
"params": [
"TokenkegQfeZyiNwAJbNbGKPFXCWuBvf9Ss623VQ5DA",
{
"encoding": "jsonParsed",
"filters": [
{
"dataSize": 165
},
{
"memcmp": {
"offset": 0,
"bytes": "TESTpKgj42ya3st2SQTKiANjTBmncQSCqLAZGcSPLGM"
}
}
]
}
]
}
'

The "dataSize": 165 filter selects all Token Acccounts, and then the "memcmp": ... filter selects based on the mint address within each token account.

Finding all token accounts for a wallet

Find all token accounts owned by the vines1vzrYbzLMRdu58ou5XTby4qAqVRLmqo36NKPTg user:

curl http://api.mainnet-beta.solana.com -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '
{
"jsonrpc": "2.0",
"id": 1,
"method": "getProgramAccounts",
"params": [
"TokenkegQfeZyiNwAJbNbGKPFXCWuBvf9Ss623VQ5DA",
{
"encoding": "jsonParsed",
"filters": [
{
"dataSize": 165
},
{
"memcmp": {
"offset": 32,
"bytes": "vines1vzrYbzLMRdu58ou5XTby4qAqVRLmqo36NKPTg"
}
}
]
}
]
}

The "dataSize": 165 filter selects all Token Acccounts, and then the "memcmp": ... filter selects based on the owner address within each token account.

Operational overview

Creating a new token type

A new token type can be created by initializing a new Mint with the InitializeMint instruction. The Mint is used to create or "mint" new tokens, and these tokens are stored in Accounts. A Mint is associated with each Account, which means that the total supply of a particular token type is equal to the balances of all the associated Accounts.

It's important to note that the InitializeMint instruction does not require the Solana account being initialized also be a signer. The InitializeMint instruction should be atomically processed with the system instruction that creates the Solana account by including both instructions in the same transaction.

Once a Mint is initialized, the mint_authority can create new tokens using the MintTo instruction. As long as a Mint contains a valid mint_authority, the Mint is considered to have a non-fixed supply, and the mint_authority can create new tokens with the MintTo instruction at any time. The SetAuthority instruction can be used to irreversibly set the Mint's authority to None, rendering the Mint's supply fixed. No further tokens can ever be Minted.

Token supply can be reduced at any time by issuing a Burn instruction which removes and discards tokens from an Account.

Creating accounts

Accounts hold token balances and are created using the InitializeAccount instruction. Each Account has an owner who must be present as a signer in some instructions.

An Account's owner may transfer ownership of an account to another using the SetAuthority instruction.

It's important to note that the InitializeAccount instruction does not require the Solana account being initialized also be a signer. The InitializeAccount instruction should be atomically processed with the system instruction that creates the Solana account by including both instructions in the same transaction.

Transferring tokens

Balances can be transferred between Accounts using the Transfer instruction. The owner of the source Account must be present as a signer in the Transfer instruction when the source and destination accounts are different.

It's important to note that when the source and destination of a Transfer are the same, the Transfer will always succeed. Therefore, a successful Transfer does not necessarily imply that the involved Accounts were valid SPL Token accounts, that any tokens were moved, or that the source Account was present as a signer. We strongly recommend that developers are careful about checking that the source and destination are different before invoking a Transfer instruction from within their program.

Burning

The Burn instruction decreases an Account's token balance without transferring to another Account, effectively removing the token from circulation permanently.

There is no other way to reduce supply on chain. This is similar to transferring to an account with unknown private key or destroying a private key. But the act of burning by using Burn instructions is more explicit and can be confirmed on chain by any parties.

Note: there is a method by which a malicious and determined account owner can silently burn their tokens without updating supply on chain by making an account that is removed by rent collection because of this known issue.

Authority delegation

Account owners may delegate authority over some or all of their token balance using the Approve instruction. Delegated authorities may transfer or burn up to the amount they've been delegated. Authority delegation may be revoked by the Account's owner via the Revoke instruction.

Multisignatures

M of N multisignatures are supported and can be used in place of Mint authorities or Account owners or delegates. Multisignature authorities must be initialized with the InitializeMultisig instruction. Initialization specifies the set of N public keys that are valid and the number M of those N that must be present as instruction signers for the authority to be legitimate.

It's important to note that the InitializeMultisig instruction does not require the Solana account being initialized also be a signer. The InitializeMultisig instruction should be atomically processed with the system instruction that creates the Solana account by including both instructions in the same transaction.

Freezing accounts

The Mint may also contain a freeze_authority which can be used to issue FreezeAccount instructions that will render an Account unusable. Token instructions that include a frozen account will fail until the Account is thawed using the ThawAccount instruction. The SetAuthority instruction can be used to change a Mint's freeze_authority. If a Mint's freeze_authority is set to None then account freezing and thawing is permanently disabled and all currently frozen accounts will also stay frozen permanently.

Wrapping SOL

The Token Program can be used to wrap native SOL. Doing so allows native SOL to be treated like any other Token program token type and can be useful when being called from other programs that interact with the Token Program's interface.

Accounts containing wrapped SOL are associated with a specific Mint called the "Native Mint" using the public key So11111111111111111111111111111111111111112.

These accounts have a few unique behaviors

  • InitializeAccount sets the balance of the initialized Account to the SOL balance of the Solana account being initialized, resulting in a token balance equal to the SOL balance.
  • Transfers to and from not only modify the token balance but also transfer an equal amount of SOL from the source account to the destination account.
  • Burning is not supported
  • When closing an Account the balance may be non-zero.

The Native Mint supply will always report 0, regardless of how much SOL is currently wrapped.

Rent-exemption

To ensure a reliable calculation of supply, a consistency valid Mint, and consistently valid Multisig accounts all Solana accounts holding a Account, Mint, or Multisig must contain enough SOL to be considered rent exempt

Rent-exemption loophole

However note that there is currently a loophole to escape from the rent-exemption rule. It is possible to create SPL Token accounts that are not rent exempt by spoofing the Rent sysvar, since there are insufficient sysvar checks in the program. This could be abused to burn tokens by transferring tokens to a non-exempt Account that is subsequently rent-collected out of existence.

Closing accounts

An account may be closed using the CloseAccount instruction. When closing an Account, all remaining SOL will be transferred to another Solana account (doesn't have to be associated with the Token Program). Non-native Accounts must have a balance of zero to be closed.

Non-Fungible tokens

An NTF is simply a token type where only a single token has been minted.

Wallet Integration Guide

This section describes how to integrate SPL Token support into an existing wallet supporting native SOL. It assumes a model whereby the user has a single system account as their main wallet address that they send and receive SOL from.

Although all SPL Token accounts do have their own address on-chain, there's no need to surface these additional addresses to the user.

There are two programs that are used by the wallet:

  • SPL Token program: generic program that is used by all SPL Tokens
  • SPL Associated Token Account program: defines the convention and provides the mechanism for mapping the user's wallet address to the associated token accounts they hold.

How to fetch and display token holdings

The getTokenAccountsByOwner JSON RPC method can be used to fetch all token accounts for a wallet address.

For each token mint, the wallet could have multiple token accounts: the associated token account and/or other ancillary token accounts

By convention it is suggested that wallets roll up the balances from all token accounts of the same token mint into a single balance for the user to shield the user from this complexity.

See the Garbage Collecting Ancillary Token Accounts section for suggestions on how the wallet should clean up ancillary token accounts on the user's behalf.

Associated Token Account

Before the user can receive tokens, their associated token account must be created on-chain, requiring a small amount of SOL to mark the account as rent-exempt.

There's no restriction on who can create a user's associated token account. It could either be created by the wallet on behalf of the user or funded by a 3rd party through an airdrop campaign.

The creation process is described here.

Sample "Add Token" workflow

The user should first fund their associated token when they want to receive tokens of a certain type.

The wallet should provide a UI that allow the users to "add a token". The user selects the kind of token, and is presented with information about how much SOL it will cost to add the token.

Upon confirmation, the wallet creates the associated token type as the described here.

Sample "Airdrop campaign" workflow

For each recipient wallet addresses, send a transaction containing:

  1. Create the associated token account on the recipient's behalf.
  2. Use TokenInstruction::Transfer to complete the transfer

Associated Token Account Ownership

⚠️ The wallet should never use TokenInstruction::SetAuthority to set the AccountOwner authority of the associated token account to another address.

Ancillary Token Accounts

At any time ownership of an existing SPL Token account may be assigned to the user. One way to accomplish this is with the spl-token authorize <TOKEN_ADDRESS> owner <USER_ADDRESS> command. Wallets should be prepared to gracefully manage token accounts that they themselves did not create for the user.

Transferring Tokens Between Wallets

The preferred method of transferring tokens between wallets is to transfer into associated token account of the recipient.

The recipient must provide their main wallet address to the sender. The sender then:

  1. Derives the associated token account for the recipient
  2. Fetches the recipient's associated token account over RPC and checks that it exists.
  3. If the recipient's associated token account does not exist, the sender wallet may choose to first fund the recipient's wallet at their expense
  4. Use TokenInstruction::Transfer to complete the transfer.

Registry for token details

At the moment Token Mint addresses need to be hard coded by each wallet. Improving this situation is a work in progress.

Garbage Collecting Ancillary Token Accounts

Wallets should empty ancillary token accounts as quickly as practical by transferring into the user's associated token account. This effort serves two purposes:

  • If the user is the close authority for the ancillary account, the wallet can reclaim SOL for the user by closing the account.
  • If the ancillary account was funded by a 3rd party, once the account is emptied that 3rd party may close the account and reclaim the SOL.

One natural time to garbage collect ancillary token accounts is when the user next sends tokens. The additional instructions to do so can be added to the existing transaction, and will not require an additional fee.

Cleanup Pseudo Steps:

  1. For all non-empty ancillary token accounts, add a TokenInstruction::Transfer instruction to the transfer the full token amount to the user's associated token account.
  2. For all empty ancillary token accounts where the user is the close authority, add a TokenInstruction::CloseAccount instruction

If adding one or more of clean up instructions cause the transaction to exceed the maximum allowed transaction size, remove those extra clean up instructions. They can be cleaned up during the next send operation.

The spl-token gc command provides an example implementation of this cleanup process.