Token Swap Program

A Uniswap-like exchange for the Token program on the Solana blockchain, implementing multiple automated market maker (AMM) curves.

Here is some important developer information regarding the program deployed on devnet, testnet, and mainnet-beta:

InformationAccount Address
Token Swap ProgramSwaPpA9LAaLfeLi3a68M4DjnLqgtticKg6CnyNwgAC8

Check out program repository for more developer information.


The Token Swap Program allows simple trading of token pairs without a centralized limit order book. The program uses a mathematical formula called "curve" to calculate the price of all trades. Curves aim to mimic normal market dynamics: for example, as traders buy a lot of one token type, the value of the other token type goes up.

Depositors in the pool provide liquidity for the token pair. That liquidity enables trade execution at spot price. In exchange for their liquidity, depositors receive pool tokens, representing their fractional ownership in the pool. During each trade, a program withholds a portion of the input token as a fee. That fee increases the value of pool tokens by being stored in the pool.

This program was heavily inspired by Uniswap and Balancer. More information is available in their excellent documentation and whitepapers.


Solana's programming model and the definitions of the Solana terms used in this document are available at:


The Token Swap Program's source is available on github.


JavaScript bindings are available that support loading the Token Swap Program on to a chain and issuing instructions.

Example user interface built and maintained by Serum team is available here

Operational overview

The following explains the instructions available in the Token Swap Program. Note that each instruction has a simple code example that can be found in the end-to-end tests.

Creating a new token swap pool

The creation of a pool showcases the account, instruction, and authorization models on Solana, which can be very different compared to other blockchains.

Initialization of a pool between two token types, which we'll call "A" and "B" for simplicity, requires the following accounts:

  • empty pool state account
  • pool authority
  • token A account
  • token B account
  • pool token mint
  • pool token fee account
  • pool token recipient account
  • token program

The pool state account simply needs to be created using system_instruction::create_account with the correct size and enough lamports to be rent-free.

The pool authority is a program derived address that can "sign" instructions towards other programs. This is required for the Token Swap Program to mint pool tokens and transfer tokens from its token A and B accounts.

The token A / B accounts, pool token mint, and pool token accounts must all be created (using system_instruction::create_account) and initialized (using spl_token::instruction::initialize_mint or spl_token::instruction::initialize_account). The token A and B accounts must be funded with tokens, and their owner set to the swap authority, and the mint must also be owned by the swap authority.

Once all of these accounts are created, the Token Swap initialize instruction will properly set everything up and allow for immediate trading. Note that the pool state account is not required to be a signer on initialize, so it's important to perform the initialize instruction in the same transaction as its system_instruction::create_account.


Once a pool is created, users can immediately begin trading on it using the swap instruction. The swap instruction transfers tokens from a user's source account into the swap's source token account, and then transfers tokens from its destination token account into the user's destination token account.

Since Solana programs require all accounts to be declared in the instruction, users need to gather all account information from the pool state account: the token A and B accounts, pool token mint, and fee account.

Additionally, the user must allow for tokens to be transferred from their source token account. The best practice is to spl_token::instruction::approve a precise amount to a new throwaway Keypair, and then have that new Keypair sign the swap transaction. This limits the amount of tokens that can be taken from the user's account by the program.

Depositing liquidity

To allow any trading, the pool needs liquidity provided from the outside. Using the deposit_all_token_types or deposit_single_token_type_exact_amount_in instructions, anyone can provide liquidity for others to trade, and in exchange, depositors receive a pool token representing fractional ownership of all A and B tokens in the pool.

Additionally, the user will need to approve a delegate to transfer tokens from their A and B token accounts. This limits the amount of tokens that can be taken from the user's account by the program.

Withdrawing liquidity

At any time, pool token holders may redeem their pool tokens in exchange for tokens A and B, returned at the current "fair" rate as determined by the curve. In the withdraw_all_token_types and withdraw_single_token_type_exact_amount_out instructions, pool tokens are burned, and tokens A and B are transferred into the user's accounts.

Additionally, the user will need to approve a delegate to transfer tokens from their pool token account. This limits the amount of tokens that can be taken from the user's account by the program.


The Token Swap Program is completely customizable for any possible trading curve that implements the CurveCalculator trait. If you would like to implement a new automated market maker, it may be as easy as forking the Token Swap Program and implementing a new curve. The following curves are all provided out of the box for reference.

Constant product

The constant product curve is the well-known Uniswap and Balancer style curve that preserves an invariant on all swaps, expressed as the product of the quantity of token A and token B in the swap.

A_total * B_total = invariant

If a trader wishes to put in token A for some amount of token B, the calculation for token B becomes:

(A_total + A_in) * (B_total - B_out) = invariant

For example, if the swap has 100 token A and 5,000 token B, and a trader wishes to put in 10 token A, we can solve for the invariant and then B_out:

A_total * B_total = 100 * 5,000 = 500,000 = invariant


(A_total + A_in) * (B_total - B_out) = invariant
(100 + 10) * (5,000 - B_out) = 500,000
5,000 - B_out = 500,000 / 110
5,000 - (500,000 / 110) = B_out
B_out = 454.5454...

More information can be found on the Uniswap whitepaper and the Balancer whitepaper.

Constant price

The constant price curve is a simple curve that always maintains the price of token A with respect to token B. At initialization, the swap creator sets the cost for 1 token B in terms of token A. For example, if the price is set to 17, 17 token A will always be required to receive 1 token B, and 1 token B will always be required to receive 17 token A.

Note that this curve does not follow traditional market dynamics, since the price is always the same.

Constant price curves are most useful for fixed offerings of new tokens that explicitly should not have market dynamics. For example, a decentralized game creator wants to sell new "SOLGAME" tokens to be used in their game, so they create a constant price swap of 2 USDC per SOLGAME, and supply all of the SOLGAME tokens at swap creation. Users can go to the swap and purchase all of the tokens they want and not worry about the market making SOLGAME tokens too expensive.

Stable (under construction)

The stable curve from, has a different shape to prioritize "stable" trading, meaning prices that stay constant through trading. Most importantly, prices don't change as quickly as the constant product curve, so a stable swap between two coins that represent the same value should be as close to 1:1 as possible. For example, stablecoins that represent a value in USD (USDC, TUSD, USDT, DAI), should not have big price discrepancies due to the amount of tokens in the swap.

The curve mirrors the dynamics of the curve More information can be found on their whitepaper.

The Token Swap Program implementation of the stable curve is under construction, and a more complete version can be found at the stable-swap-program.


The offset curve can be seen as a combination of the constant price and constant product curve. It follows the constant product curve dynamics, but allows for the pool creator to set an "offset" on one side. The invariant for the curve is:

(A_total) * (B_total + B_offset) = invariant

This is useful for initial token offerings, where the token creator wants to sell some new token as a swap without putting up the capital to fund the other side of the swap. This is similar to the constant price curve, but the key difference is that the offset curve captures normal market dynamics, in that the offered token price will increase as it is bought.

For example, a decentralized betting application creator wants to sell new "SOLBET" tokens on the market in exchange for USDC, and they believe each token is worth at least 4 USDC. They create a pool between SOLBET and USDC, funding one side with 1,000 SOLBET, and the other side with 0 USDC, but an offset of 4,000 USDC.

If a trader tries to buy SOLBET with 40 USDC, the invariant is calculated with the offset:

(SOLBET_total) * (USDC_total + USDC_offset) = invariant
1,000 * (0 + 4,000) = 4,000,000
(SOLBET_total - SOLBET_out) * (USDC_total + USDC_offset + USDC_in) = invariant
SOLBET_out = 9.901

The trader received 9.901 SOLBET for 40 USDC, so the price per SOLBET was roughly 4.04, slightly higher than the minimum of 4 USDC per SOLBET.

Conversely, if a trader tries to buy USDC with SOLBET immediately after creation, it will fail because there is no USDC actually present in the pool.


The token-swap program is tested using various strategies, including unit tests, integration tests, property tests, and fuzzing. Since unit tests and integration tests are well-known, we highlight property tests and fuzzing here.

Property testing

Using the proptest crate, we test specific mathematical properties of curves, specifically to avoid leaking value on any trades, deposits, or withdrawals. It is out of scope of this document to explain property testing, but the specific property tests for the Token Swap Program can be found in the curves and math portions of the repo.


Using honggfuzz, we regularly test all possible inputs to the Token Swap Program, ensuring that the program does not crash unexpectedly or leak tokens. It is out of scope of this document to explain fuzzing, but the specific implementation for the program can be found in the instruction fuzz tests of the repo.